CompletableFuture异步方法进阶

lijunyi2021-11-17java异步多线程

回顾Future方法使用🧨

//异步操作 可以用一个线程池
ExecutorService executor = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(1);
//在这里开启线程进行RealData的call()执行
Future<String> future = executor.submit(new RealData("name"));
System.out.println("请求完毕,数据准备中");
try {
    //这里依然可以做额外的数据操作,这里使用sleep代替其他业务逻辑的处理
    Thread.sleep(2000);
} catch (InterruptedException e) {}
//如果此时call()方法没有执行完成,则依然会等待
 System.out.println("数据 = " + future.get());

executor.submit内部方法🎭

 public <T> Future<T> submit(Callable<T> task) {
        if (task == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        // 根据Callable对象,创建一个RunnableFuture,这里其实就是FutureTask
        RunnableFuture<T> ftask = newTaskFor(task);
        //将ftask推送到线程池
        //在新线程中执行的,就是run()方法,在下面的代码中有给出
        execute(ftask);
        //返回这个Future,将来通过这个Future就可以得到执行的结果
        return ftask;
}
protected <T> RunnableFuture<T> newTaskFor(Callable<T> callable) {
        return new FutureTask<T>(callable);
}

// 最关键的部分在于:FutureTask作为一个线程单独执行时,会将结果保存到outcome中,并设置任务的状态

Future与CompletableFuture🎉

Future模式虽然好用,但也有一个问题,那就是将任务提交给线程后,调用线程并不知道这个任务什么时候执行完,如果执行调用get()方法或者isDone()方法判断,可能会进行不必要的等待,那么系统的吞吐量很难提高。

为了解决这个问题,从Java 8开始引入了CompletableFuture,它可以理解为Future模式的升级版本,它最大的作用是提供了一个回调机制,可以在任务完成后,自动回调一些后续的处理,这样,整个程序可以把“结果等待”完全给移除了。

CompletableFuture较Future的突出点😊

  • 异步任务结束时,会自动回调某个对象的方法;

  • 异步任务出错时,会自动回调某个对象的方法;

  • 主线程设置好回调后,不再关心异步任务的执行。

  • 多个CompletableFuture可以串行/并行执行

深入了解CompletableFuture🐱‍👤

大纲图👌

01

创建异步任务🌋

CompletableFuture创建异步任务,一般有supplyAsync和runAsync两个方法

  • supplyAsync执行CompletableFuture任务,支持返回值
  • runAsync执行CompletableFuture任务,没有返回值。

supplyAsync方法

//使用默认内置线程池ForkJoinPool.commonPool(),根据supplier构建执行任务
public static <U> CompletableFuture<U> supplyAsync(Supplier<U> supplier)
//自定义线程,根据supplier构建执行任务
public static <U> CompletableFuture<U> supplyAsync(Supplier<U> supplier, Executor executor)

runAsync方法

//使用默认内置线程池ForkJoinPool.commonPool(),根据runnable构建执行任务
public static CompletableFuture<Void> runAsync(Runnable runnable) 
//自定义线程,根据runnable构建执行任务
public static CompletableFuture<Void> runAsync(Runnable runnable,  Executor executor)

示例

public class FutureTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        //可以自定义线程池
        ExecutorService executor = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();
        //runAsync的使用
        // CompletableFuture<Void> runFuture = CompletableFuture.runAsync(() -> System.out.println("hello CompletableFuture"), executor);
        // 业务操作代码
        CompletableFuture<Void> runFuture = CompletableFuture.runAsync(() -> {
        	// 业务代码,例如insert update...
        }, executor);
        //supplyAsync的使用
        CompletableFuture<String> supplyFuture = CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(() -> {
                    		System.out.print("hello CompletableFuture");
                    		return "hello CompletableFuture.supplyAsync ";
        				}, executor);
        //阻塞等待,runAsync的future没有返回值,输出null
        System.out.println(runFuture.join());
        //supplyAsync的future,有返回值
        System.out.println(supplyFuture.join());
        executor.shutdown(); // 线程池需要关闭
    }
}

任务异步回调🌋

02

1. thenRun/thenRunAsync

/**
做完第一个任务后,再做第二个任务。某个任务执行完成后,执行回调方法;但是前后两个任务没有参数传递,第二个任务也没有返回值

两者区别:
	如果你执行第一个任务的时候,传入了一个自定义线程池:
		.调用thenRun方法执行第二个任务时,则第二个任务和第一个任务是共用同一个线程池。
		.调用thenRunAsync执行第二个任务时,则第一个任务使用的是你自己传入的线程池,第二个任务使用的是ForkJoin线程池

*/
/**
 * Default executor -- ForkJoinPool.commonPool() unless it cannot
 * support parallelism.
 */
private static final Executor asyncPool = useCommonPool ? ForkJoinPool.commonPool() : new ThreadPerTaskExecutor();

public CompletableFuture<Void> thenRun(Runnable action) {
        return uniRunStage(null, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> thenRunAsync(Runnable action) {
        return uniRunStage(asyncPool, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> thenRunAsync(Runnable action,
                                                Executor executor) {
        return uniRunStage(screenExecutor(executor), action);
    }

示例

public class FutureThenRunTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws ExecutionException, InterruptedException {

        CompletableFuture<String> orgFuture = CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(
                ()->{
                    System.out.println("先执行第一个CompletableFuture方法任务");
                    return "第一个CompletableFuture方法任务";
                }
        );

        CompletableFuture thenRunFuture = orgFuture.thenRun(() -> {
            System.out.println("接着执行第二个任务");
        });

        System.out.println(thenRunFuture.get());
    }
}

2.thenAccept/thenAcceptAsync

/**
第一个任务执行完成后,执行第二个回调方法任务,会将该任务的执行结果,作为入参,传递到回调方法中,但是回调方法是没有返回值的。
*/

public class FutureThenAcceptTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws ExecutionException, InterruptedException {

        CompletableFuture<String> orgFuture = CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(
                ()->{
                    System.out.println("原始CompletableFuture方法任务");
                    return "原始CompletableFuture方法";
                }
        );

        CompletableFuture thenAcceptFuture = orgFuture.thenAccept((a) -> {
            if ("原始CompletableFuture方法".equals(a)) {
                System.out.println("完成了");
            }

            System.out.println("yes....");
        });

        System.out.println(thenAcceptFuture.get());
    }
}

3. thenApply/thenApplyAsync


/**
第一个任务执行完成后,执行第二个回调方法任务,会将该任务的执行结果,作为入参,传递到回调方法中,并且回调方法是有返回值的。
*/
public class FutureThenApplyTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws ExecutionException, InterruptedException {

        CompletableFuture<String> orgFuture = CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(
                ()->{
                    System.out.println("原始CompletableFuture方法任务");
                    return "原始CompletableFuture方法";
                }
        );

        CompletableFuture<String> thenApplyFuture = orgFuture.thenApply((a) -> {
            if ("原始CompletableFuture方法".equals(a)) {
                return "成功了";
            }

            return "yes....";
        });

        System.out.println(thenApplyFuture.get());
    }
}

4. exceptionally-处理异常

/**
某个任务执行异常时,执行的回调方法;并且有抛出异常作为参数,传递到回调方法。
*/
public class FutureExceptionTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws ExecutionException, InterruptedException {

        CompletableFuture<String> orgFuture = CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(
                ()->{
                    System.out.println("当前线程名称:" + Thread.currentThread().getName());
                    throw new RuntimeException();
                }
        );

        CompletableFuture<String> exceptionFuture = orgFuture.exceptionally((e) -> {
            e.printStackTrace();
            return "你的程序异常啦";
        });

        System.out.println(exceptionFuture.get());
    }
}
//输出
当前线程名称:ForkJoinPool.commonPool-worker-1
java.util.concurrent.CompletionException: java.lang.RuntimeException
	at java.util.concurrent.CompletableFuture.encodeThrowable(CompletableFuture.java:273)
	at java.util.concurrent.CompletableFuture.completeThrowable(CompletableFuture.java:280)
	at java.util.concurrent.CompletableFuture$AsyncSupply.run(CompletableFuture.java:1592)
	at java.util.concurrent.CompletableFuture$AsyncSupply.exec(CompletableFuture.java:1582)
	at java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinTask.doExec(ForkJoinTask.java:289)
	at java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool$WorkQueue.runTask(ForkJoinPool.java:1056)
	at java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinPool.runWorker(ForkJoinPool.java:1692)
	at java.util.concurrent.ForkJoinWorkerThread.run(ForkJoinWorkerThread.java:157)
Caused by: java.lang.RuntimeException
	at cn.eovie.future.FutureWhenTest.lambda$main$0(FutureWhenTest.java:13)
	at java.util.concurrent.CompletableFuture$AsyncSupply.run(CompletableFuture.java:1590)
	... 5 more
你的程序异常啦

5. whenComplete方法

/**
某个任务执行完成后,执行的回调方法,无返回值;并且whenComplete方法返回的CompletableFuture的result是上个任务的结果。
*/
public class FutureWhenTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws ExecutionException, InterruptedException {

        CompletableFuture<String> orgFuture = CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(
                ()->{
                    System.out.println("当前线程名称:" + Thread.currentThread().getName());
                    try {
                        Thread.sleep(2000L);
                    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                    return "任务一";
                }
        );

        CompletableFuture<String> rstFuture = orgFuture.whenComplete((a, throwable) -> {
            System.out.println("当前线程名称:" + Thread.currentThread().getName());
            System.out.println("上个任务执行完啦,还把" + a + "传过来");
            if ("任务一".equals(a)) {
                System.out.println("job 1 success");
            }
            System.out.println("6666666");
        });

        System.out.println(rstFuture.get());
    }
}

6. handle方法

/**
某个任务执行完成后,执行回调方法,并且是有返回值的;并且handle方法返回的CompletableFuture的result是回调方法执行的结果。
*/
public class FutureHandlerTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws ExecutionException, InterruptedException {

        CompletableFuture<String> orgFuture = CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(
                ()->{
                    System.out.println("当前线程名称:" + Thread.currentThread().getName());
                    try {
                        Thread.sleep(2000L);
                    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                    return "任务一";
                }
        );

        CompletableFuture<String> rstFuture = orgFuture.handle((a, throwable) -> {

            System.out.println("上个任务执行完啦,还把" + a + "传过来");
            if ("任务一".equals(a)) {
                System.out.println("job 1 success");
                return "job 1";
            }
            System.out.println("666666");
            return null;
        });

        System.out.println(rstFuture.get());
    }
}

多个任务组合处理🌋

03

AND组合关系

/**
thenCombine / thenAcceptBoth / runAfterBoth都表示:将两个CompletableFuture组合起来,只有这两个都正常执行完了,才会执行某个任务。

区别:
	.thenCombine:会将两个任务的执行结果作为方法入参,传递到指定方法中,且有返回值
	.thenAcceptBoth: 会将两个任务的执行结果作为方法入参,传递到指定方法中,且无返回值
	.runAfterBoth 不会把执行结果当做方法入参,且没有返回值。

*/
public class ThenCombineTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException, TimeoutException {

        CompletableFuture<String> first = CompletableFuture.completedFuture("第一个异步任务");
        ExecutorService executor = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(10);
        CompletableFuture<String> future = CompletableFuture
                //第二个异步任务
                .supplyAsync(() -> "第二个异步任务", executor)
                // (w, s) -> System.out.println(s) 是第三个任务
                .thenCombineAsync(first, (s, w) -> {
                    System.out.println(w);
                    System.out.println(s);
                    return "两个异步任务的组合";
                }, executor);
        System.out.println(future.join());
        executor.shutdown();

    }
}
//输出
第一个异步任务
第二个异步任务
两个异步任务的组合

OR 组合的关系

/**
applyToEither / acceptEither / runAfterEither 都表示:将两个CompletableFuture组合起来,只要其中一个执行完了,就会执行某个任务。
区别在于:

	.applyToEither:会将已经执行完成的任务,作为方法入参,传递到指定方法中,且有返回值
	.acceptEither: 会将已经执行完成的任务,作为方法入参,传递到指定方法中,且无返回值
	.runAfterEither: 不会把执行结果当做方法入参,且没有返回值。

*/

public class AcceptEitherTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        //第一个异步任务,休眠2秒,保证它执行晚点
        CompletableFuture<String> first = CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(()->{
            try{

                Thread.sleep(2000L);
                System.out.println("执行完第一个异步任务");}
                catch (Exception e){
                    return "第一个任务异常";
                }
            return "第一个异步任务";
        });
        ExecutorService executor = Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor();
        CompletableFuture<Void> future = CompletableFuture
                //第二个异步任务
                .supplyAsync(() -> {
                            System.out.println("执行完第二个任务");
                            return "第二个任务";}
                , executor)
                //第三个任务
                .acceptEitherAsync(first, System.out::println, executor);

        executor.shutdown();
    }
}

AllOf

/**
所有任务都执行完成后,才执行 allOf返回的CompletableFuture。如果任意一个任务异常,allOf的CompletableFuture,执行get方法,会抛出异常
*/
public class allOfFutureTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws ExecutionException, InterruptedException {

        CompletableFuture<Void> a = CompletableFuture.runAsync(()->{
            System.out.println("我执行完了");
        });
        CompletableFuture<Void> b = CompletableFuture.runAsync(() -> {
            System.out.println("我也执行完了");
        });
        CompletableFuture<Void> allOfFuture = CompletableFuture.allOf(a, b).whenComplete((m,k)->{
            System.out.println("finish");
        });
    }
}

AnyOf

/**
任意一个任务执行完,就执行anyOf返回的CompletableFuture。如果执行的任务异常,anyOf的CompletableFuture,执行get方法,会抛出异常
*/
public class AnyOfFutureTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws ExecutionException, InterruptedException {

        CompletableFuture<Void> a = CompletableFuture.runAsync(()->{
            try {
                Thread.sleep(3000L);
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
            System.out.println("我执行完了");
        });
        CompletableFuture<Void> b = CompletableFuture.runAsync(() -> {
            System.out.println("我也执行完了");
        });
        CompletableFuture<Object> anyOfFuture = CompletableFuture.anyOf(a, b).whenComplete((m,k)->{
            System.out.println("finish");
        });
        anyOfFuture.join();
    }
}

thenCompose

/**
thenCompose方法会在某个任务执行完成后,将该任务的执行结果,作为方法入参,去执行指定的方法。该方法会返回一个新的CompletableFuture实例

	如果该CompletableFuture实例的result不为null,则返回一个基于该result新的CompletableFuture实例;
	如果该CompletableFuture实例为null,然后就执行这个新任务
*/
public class ThenComposeTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws ExecutionException, InterruptedException {

        CompletableFuture<String> f = CompletableFuture.completedFuture("第一个任务");
        //第二个异步任务
        ExecutorService executor = Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor();
        CompletableFuture<String> future = CompletableFuture
                .supplyAsync(() -> "第二个任务", executor)
                .thenComposeAsync(data -> {
                    System.out.println(data); return f; //使用第一个任务作为返回
                }, executor);
        System.out.println(future.join());
        executor.shutdown();

    }
}
//输出
第二个任务
第一个任务

CompletableFuture注意点🌋

1. Future需要获取返回值,才能获取异常信息

/**
Future需要获取返回值,才能获取到异常信息。如果不加 get()/join()方法,看不到异常信息。小伙伴们使用的时候,注意一下哈,考虑是否加try...catch...或者使用exceptionally方法。
*/

ExecutorService executorService = new ThreadPoolExecutor(5, 10, 5L,
    TimeUnit.SECONDS, new ArrayBlockingQueue<>(10));
CompletableFuture<Void> future = CompletableFuture.supplyAsync(() -> {
      int a = 0;
      int b = 666;
      int c = b / a;
      return true;
   },executorService).thenAccept(System.out::println);
   
 //如果不加 get()方法这一行,看不到异常信息
 //future.get();

2. CompletableFuture的get()方法是阻塞的。

// CompletableFuture的get()方法是阻塞的,如果使用它来获取异步调用的返回值,需要添加超时时间~

//反例
 CompletableFuture.get();
//正例
CompletableFuture.get(5, TimeUnit.SECONDS);

3. 默认线程池的注意点

CompletableFuture代码中又使用了默认的线程池,处理的线程个数是电脑CPU核数-1。在大量请求过来的时候,处理逻辑复杂的话,响应会很慢。一般建议使用自定义线程池,优化线程池配置参数。

4. 自定义线程池时,注意饱和策略

CompletableFuture的get()方法是阻塞的,一般建议使用future.get(3, TimeUnit.SECONDS)。并且建议使用自定义线程池。

但是如果线程池拒绝策略是DiscardPolicy或者DiscardOldestPolicy,当线程池饱和时,会直接丢弃任务,不会抛弃异常。

因此建议,CompletableFuture线程池策略最好使用AbortPolicy,然后耗时的异步线程,做好线程池隔离。

取消执行线程任务🌋

// mayInterruptIfRunning 无影响;如果任务未完成,则返回异常
public boolean cancel(boolean mayInterruptIfRunning) 
//任务是否取消
public boolean isCancelled()

    
CompletableFuture<Integer> future = CompletableFuture
        .supplyAsync(() -> {
            try { Thread.sleep(1000);  } catch (Exception e) { }
            return "hello world";
        })
        .thenApply(data -> 1);

System.out.println("任务取消前:" + future.isCancelled());
// 如果任务未完成,则返回异常,需要对使用exceptionally,handle 对结果处理
future.cancel(true);
System.out.println("任务取消后:" + future.isCancelled());
future = future.exceptionally(e -> {
    e.printStackTrace();
    return 0;
});
System.out.println(future.join());
--------输出结果--------
任务取消前:false
任务取消后:true
java.util.concurrent.CancellationException
	at java.util.concurrent.CompletableFuture.cancel(CompletableFuture.java:2276)
	at Test.main(Test.java:25)
0

任务的获取和完成与否判断🌋

// 任务是否执行完成
public boolean isDone()
//阻塞等待 获取返回值
public T join()
// 阻塞等待 获取返回值,区别是get需要返回受检异常
public T get()
//等待阻塞一段时间,并获取返回值
public T get(long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
//未完成则返回指定value
public T getNow(T valueIfAbsent)
//未完成,使用value作为任务执行的结果,任务结束。需要future.get获取
public boolean complete(T value)
//未完成,则是异常调用,返回异常结果,任务结束
public boolean completeExceptionally(Throwable ex)
//判断任务是否因发生异常结束的
public boolean isCompletedExceptionally()
//强制地将返回值设置为value,无论该之前任务是否完成;类似complete
public void obtrudeValue(T value)
//强制地让异常抛出,异常返回,无论该之前任务是否完成;类似completeExceptionally
public void obtrudeException(Throwable ex) 

CompletableFuture源码🌋

public class CompletableFuture<T> implements Future<T>, CompletionStage<T>
{

    volatile Object result;       // Either the result or boxed AltResult
    volatile Completion stack;    // Top of Treiber stack of dependent actions

    final boolean internalComplete(Object r) { // CAS from null to r
        return UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, RESULT, null, r);
    }

    final boolean casStack(Completion cmp, Completion val) {
        return UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, STACK, cmp, val);
    }

    /** Returns true if successfully pushed c onto stack. */
    final boolean tryPushStack(Completion c) {
        Completion h = stack;
        lazySetNext(c, h);
        return UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, STACK, h, c);
    }

    /** Unconditionally pushes c onto stack, retrying if necessary. */
    final void pushStack(Completion c) {
        do {} while (!tryPushStack(c));
    }

    /* ------------- Encoding and decoding outcomes -------------- */

    static final class AltResult { // See above
        final Throwable ex;        // null only for NIL
        AltResult(Throwable x) { this.ex = x; }
    }

    /** The encoding of the null value. */
    static final AltResult NIL = new AltResult(null);

    /** Completes with the null value, unless already completed. */
    final boolean completeNull() {
        return UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, RESULT, null,
                                           NIL);
    }

    /** Returns the encoding of the given non-exceptional value. */
    final Object encodeValue(T t) {
        return (t == null) ? NIL : t;
    }

    /** Completes with a non-exceptional result, unless already completed. */
    final boolean completeValue(T t) {
        return UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, RESULT, null,
                                           (t == null) ? NIL : t);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the encoding of the given (non-null) exception as a
     * wrapped CompletionException unless it is one already.
     */
    static AltResult encodeThrowable(Throwable x) {
        return new AltResult((x instanceof CompletionException) ? x :
                             new CompletionException(x));
    }

    /** Completes with an exceptional result, unless already completed. */
    final boolean completeThrowable(Throwable x) {
        return UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, RESULT, null,
                                           encodeThrowable(x));
    }

    /**
     * Returns the encoding of the given (non-null) exception as a
     * wrapped CompletionException unless it is one already.  May
     * return the given Object r (which must have been the result of a
     * source future) if it is equivalent, i.e. if this is a simple
     * relay of an existing CompletionException.
     */
    static Object encodeThrowable(Throwable x, Object r) {
        if (!(x instanceof CompletionException))
            x = new CompletionException(x);
        else if (r instanceof AltResult && x == ((AltResult)r).ex)
            return r;
        return new AltResult(x);
    }

    /**
     * Completes with the given (non-null) exceptional result as a
     * wrapped CompletionException unless it is one already, unless
     * already completed.  May complete with the given Object r
     * (which must have been the result of a source future) if it is
     * equivalent, i.e. if this is a simple propagation of an
     * existing CompletionException.
     */
    final boolean completeThrowable(Throwable x, Object r) {
        return UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, RESULT, null,
                                           encodeThrowable(x, r));
    }

    /**
     * Returns the encoding of the given arguments: if the exception
     * is non-null, encodes as AltResult.  Otherwise uses the given
     * value, boxed as NIL if null.
     */
    Object encodeOutcome(T t, Throwable x) {
        return (x == null) ? (t == null) ? NIL : t : encodeThrowable(x);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the encoding of a copied outcome; if exceptional,
     * rewraps as a CompletionException, else returns argument.
     */
    static Object encodeRelay(Object r) {
        Throwable x;
        return (((r instanceof AltResult) &&
                 (x = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null &&
                 !(x instanceof CompletionException)) ?
                new AltResult(new CompletionException(x)) : r);
    }

    /**
     * Completes with r or a copy of r, unless already completed.
     * If exceptional, r is first coerced to a CompletionException.
     */
    final boolean completeRelay(Object r) {
        return UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, RESULT, null,
                                           encodeRelay(r));
    }

    /**
     * Reports result using Future.get conventions.
     */
    private static <T> T reportGet(Object r)
        throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
        if (r == null) // by convention below, null means interrupted
            throw new InterruptedException();
        if (r instanceof AltResult) {
            Throwable x, cause;
            if ((x = ((AltResult)r).ex) == null)
                return null;
            if (x instanceof CancellationException)
                throw (CancellationException)x;
            if ((x instanceof CompletionException) &&
                (cause = x.getCause()) != null)
                x = cause;
            throw new ExecutionException(x);
        }
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T t = (T) r;
        return t;
    }

    /**
     * Decodes outcome to return result or throw unchecked exception.
     */
    private static <T> T reportJoin(Object r) {
        if (r instanceof AltResult) {
            Throwable x;
            if ((x = ((AltResult)r).ex) == null)
                return null;
            if (x instanceof CancellationException)
                throw (CancellationException)x;
            if (x instanceof CompletionException)
                throw (CompletionException)x;
            throw new CompletionException(x);
        }
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T t = (T) r;
        return t;
    }

    /* ------------- Async task preliminaries -------------- */

    /**
     * A marker interface identifying asynchronous tasks produced by
     * {@code async} methods. This may be useful for monitoring,
     * debugging, and tracking asynchronous activities.
     *
     * @since 1.8
     */
    public static interface AsynchronousCompletionTask {
    }

    private static final boolean useCommonPool =
        (ForkJoinPool.getCommonPoolParallelism() > 1);

    /**
     * Default executor -- ForkJoinPool.commonPool() unless it cannot
     * support parallelism.
     */
    private static final Executor asyncPool = useCommonPool ?
        ForkJoinPool.commonPool() : new ThreadPerTaskExecutor();

    /** Fallback if ForkJoinPool.commonPool() cannot support parallelism */
    static final class ThreadPerTaskExecutor implements Executor {
        public void execute(Runnable r) { new Thread(r).start(); }
    }

    /**
     * Null-checks user executor argument, and translates uses of
     * commonPool to asyncPool in case parallelism disabled.
     */
    static Executor screenExecutor(Executor e) {
        if (!useCommonPool && e == ForkJoinPool.commonPool())
            return asyncPool;
        if (e == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        return e;
    }

    // Modes for Completion.tryFire. Signedness matters.
    static final int SYNC   =  0;
    static final int ASYNC  =  1;
    static final int NESTED = -1;

    /* ------------- Base Completion classes and operations -------------- */

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    abstract static class Completion extends ForkJoinTask<Void>
        implements Runnable, AsynchronousCompletionTask {
        volatile Completion next;      // Treiber stack link

        /**
         * Performs completion action if triggered, returning a
         * dependent that may need propagation, if one exists.
         *
         * @param mode SYNC, ASYNC, or NESTED
         */
        abstract CompletableFuture<?> tryFire(int mode);

        /** Returns true if possibly still triggerable. Used by cleanStack. */
        abstract boolean isLive();

        public final void run()                { tryFire(ASYNC); }
        public final boolean exec()            { tryFire(ASYNC); return true; }
        public final Void getRawResult()       { return null; }
        public final void setRawResult(Void v) {}
    }

    static void lazySetNext(Completion c, Completion next) {
        UNSAFE.putOrderedObject(c, NEXT, next);
    }

    /**
     * Pops and tries to trigger all reachable dependents.  Call only
     * when known to be done.
     */
    final void postComplete() {
        /*
         * On each step, variable f holds current dependents to pop
         * and run.  It is extended along only one path at a time,
         * pushing others to avoid unbounded recursion.
         */
        CompletableFuture<?> f = this; Completion h;
        while ((h = f.stack) != null ||
               (f != this && (h = (f = this).stack) != null)) {
            CompletableFuture<?> d; Completion t;
            if (f.casStack(h, t = h.next)) {
                if (t != null) {
                    if (f != this) {
                        pushStack(h);
                        continue;
                    }
                    h.next = null;    // detach
                }
                f = (d = h.tryFire(NESTED)) == null ? this : d;
            }
        }
    }

    /** Traverses stack and unlinks dead Completions. */
    final void cleanStack() {
        for (Completion p = null, q = stack; q != null;) {
            Completion s = q.next;
            if (q.isLive()) {
                p = q;
                q = s;
            }
            else if (p == null) {
                casStack(q, s);
                q = stack;
            }
            else {
                p.next = s;
                if (p.isLive())
                    q = s;
                else {
                    p = null;  // restart
                    q = stack;
                }
            }
        }
    }

    /* ------------- One-input Completions -------------- */

    /** A Completion with a source, dependent, and executor. */
    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    abstract static class UniCompletion<T,V> extends Completion {
        Executor executor;                 // executor to use (null if none)
        CompletableFuture<V> dep;          // the dependent to complete
        CompletableFuture<T> src;          // source for action

        UniCompletion(Executor executor, CompletableFuture<V> dep,
                      CompletableFuture<T> src) {
            this.executor = executor; this.dep = dep; this.src = src;
        }

        /**
         * Returns true if action can be run. Call only when known to
         * be triggerable. Uses FJ tag bit to ensure that only one
         * thread claims ownership.  If async, starts as task -- a
         * later call to tryFire will run action.
         */
        final boolean claim() {
            Executor e = executor;
            if (compareAndSetForkJoinTaskTag((short)0, (short)1)) {
                if (e == null)
                    return true;
                executor = null; // disable
                e.execute(this);
            }
            return false;
        }

        final boolean isLive() { return dep != null; }
    }

    /** Pushes the given completion (if it exists) unless done. */
    final void push(UniCompletion<?,?> c) {
        if (c != null) {
            while (result == null && !tryPushStack(c))
                lazySetNext(c, null); // clear on failure
        }
    }

    /**
     * Post-processing by dependent after successful UniCompletion
     * tryFire.  Tries to clean stack of source a, and then either runs
     * postComplete or returns this to caller, depending on mode.
     */
    final CompletableFuture<T> postFire(CompletableFuture<?> a, int mode) {
        if (a != null && a.stack != null) {
            if (mode < 0 || a.result == null)
                a.cleanStack();
            else
                a.postComplete();
        }
        if (result != null && stack != null) {
            if (mode < 0)
                return this;
            else
                postComplete();
        }
        return null;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class UniApply<T,V> extends UniCompletion<T,V> {
        Function<? super T,? extends V> fn;
        UniApply(Executor executor, CompletableFuture<V> dep,
                 CompletableFuture<T> src,
                 Function<? super T,? extends V> fn) {
            super(executor, dep, src); this.fn = fn;
        }
        final CompletableFuture<V> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<V> d; CompletableFuture<T> a;
            if ((d = dep) == null ||
                !d.uniApply(a = src, fn, mode > 0 ? null : this))
                return null;
            dep = null; src = null; fn = null;
            return d.postFire(a, mode);
        }
    }

    final <S> boolean uniApply(CompletableFuture<S> a,
                               Function<? super S,? extends T> f,
                               UniApply<S,T> c) {
        Object r; Throwable x;
        if (a == null || (r = a.result) == null || f == null)
            return false;
        tryComplete: if (result == null) {
            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
                if ((x = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null) {
                    completeThrowable(x, r);
                    break tryComplete;
                }
                r = null;
            }
            try {
                if (c != null && !c.claim())
                    return false;
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") S s = (S) r;
                completeValue(f.apply(s));
            } catch (Throwable ex) {
                completeThrowable(ex);
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    private <V> CompletableFuture<V> uniApplyStage(
        Executor e, Function<? super T,? extends V> f) {
        if (f == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        CompletableFuture<V> d =  new CompletableFuture<V>();
        if (e != null || !d.uniApply(this, f, null)) {
            UniApply<T,V> c = new UniApply<T,V>(e, d, this, f);
            push(c);
            c.tryFire(SYNC);
        }
        return d;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class UniAccept<T> extends UniCompletion<T,Void> {
        Consumer<? super T> fn;
        UniAccept(Executor executor, CompletableFuture<Void> dep,
                  CompletableFuture<T> src, Consumer<? super T> fn) {
            super(executor, dep, src); this.fn = fn;
        }
        final CompletableFuture<Void> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<Void> d; CompletableFuture<T> a;
            if ((d = dep) == null ||
                !d.uniAccept(a = src, fn, mode > 0 ? null : this))
                return null;
            dep = null; src = null; fn = null;
            return d.postFire(a, mode);
        }
    }

    final <S> boolean uniAccept(CompletableFuture<S> a,
                                Consumer<? super S> f, UniAccept<S> c) {
        Object r; Throwable x;
        if (a == null || (r = a.result) == null || f == null)
            return false;
        tryComplete: if (result == null) {
            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
                if ((x = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null) {
                    completeThrowable(x, r);
                    break tryComplete;
                }
                r = null;
            }
            try {
                if (c != null && !c.claim())
                    return false;
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") S s = (S) r;
                f.accept(s);
                completeNull();
            } catch (Throwable ex) {
                completeThrowable(ex);
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    private CompletableFuture<Void> uniAcceptStage(Executor e,
                                                   Consumer<? super T> f) {
        if (f == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        CompletableFuture<Void> d = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
        if (e != null || !d.uniAccept(this, f, null)) {
            UniAccept<T> c = new UniAccept<T>(e, d, this, f);
            push(c);
            c.tryFire(SYNC);
        }
        return d;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class UniRun<T> extends UniCompletion<T,Void> {
        Runnable fn;
        UniRun(Executor executor, CompletableFuture<Void> dep,
               CompletableFuture<T> src, Runnable fn) {
            super(executor, dep, src); this.fn = fn;
        }
        final CompletableFuture<Void> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<Void> d; CompletableFuture<T> a;
            if ((d = dep) == null ||
                !d.uniRun(a = src, fn, mode > 0 ? null : this))
                return null;
            dep = null; src = null; fn = null;
            return d.postFire(a, mode);
        }
    }

    final boolean uniRun(CompletableFuture<?> a, Runnable f, UniRun<?> c) {
        Object r; Throwable x;
        if (a == null || (r = a.result) == null || f == null)
            return false;
        if (result == null) {
            if (r instanceof AltResult && (x = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null)
                completeThrowable(x, r);
            else
                try {
                    if (c != null && !c.claim())
                        return false;
                    f.run();
                    completeNull();
                } catch (Throwable ex) {
                    completeThrowable(ex);
                }
        }
        return true;
    }

    private CompletableFuture<Void> uniRunStage(Executor e, Runnable f) {
        if (f == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        CompletableFuture<Void> d = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
        if (e != null || !d.uniRun(this, f, null)) {
            UniRun<T> c = new UniRun<T>(e, d, this, f);
            push(c);
            c.tryFire(SYNC);
        }
        return d;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class UniWhenComplete<T> extends UniCompletion<T,T> {
        BiConsumer<? super T, ? super Throwable> fn;
        UniWhenComplete(Executor executor, CompletableFuture<T> dep,
                        CompletableFuture<T> src,
                        BiConsumer<? super T, ? super Throwable> fn) {
            super(executor, dep, src); this.fn = fn;
        }
        final CompletableFuture<T> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<T> d; CompletableFuture<T> a;
            if ((d = dep) == null ||
                !d.uniWhenComplete(a = src, fn, mode > 0 ? null : this))
                return null;
            dep = null; src = null; fn = null;
            return d.postFire(a, mode);
        }
    }

    final boolean uniWhenComplete(CompletableFuture<T> a,
                                  BiConsumer<? super T,? super Throwable> f,
                                  UniWhenComplete<T> c) {
        Object r; T t; Throwable x = null;
        if (a == null || (r = a.result) == null || f == null)
            return false;
        if (result == null) {
            try {
                if (c != null && !c.claim())
                    return false;
                if (r instanceof AltResult) {
                    x = ((AltResult)r).ex;
                    t = null;
                } else {
                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T tr = (T) r;
                    t = tr;
                }
                f.accept(t, x);
                if (x == null) {
                    internalComplete(r);
                    return true;
                }
            } catch (Throwable ex) {
                if (x == null)
                    x = ex;
            }
            completeThrowable(x, r);
        }
        return true;
    }

    private CompletableFuture<T> uniWhenCompleteStage(
        Executor e, BiConsumer<? super T, ? super Throwable> f) {
        if (f == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        CompletableFuture<T> d = new CompletableFuture<T>();
        if (e != null || !d.uniWhenComplete(this, f, null)) {
            UniWhenComplete<T> c = new UniWhenComplete<T>(e, d, this, f);
            push(c);
            c.tryFire(SYNC);
        }
        return d;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class UniHandle<T,V> extends UniCompletion<T,V> {
        BiFunction<? super T, Throwable, ? extends V> fn;
        UniHandle(Executor executor, CompletableFuture<V> dep,
                  CompletableFuture<T> src,
                  BiFunction<? super T, Throwable, ? extends V> fn) {
            super(executor, dep, src); this.fn = fn;
        }
        final CompletableFuture<V> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<V> d; CompletableFuture<T> a;
            if ((d = dep) == null ||
                !d.uniHandle(a = src, fn, mode > 0 ? null : this))
                return null;
            dep = null; src = null; fn = null;
            return d.postFire(a, mode);
        }
    }

    final <S> boolean uniHandle(CompletableFuture<S> a,
                                BiFunction<? super S, Throwable, ? extends T> f,
                                UniHandle<S,T> c) {
        Object r; S s; Throwable x;
        if (a == null || (r = a.result) == null || f == null)
            return false;
        if (result == null) {
            try {
                if (c != null && !c.claim())
                    return false;
                if (r instanceof AltResult) {
                    x = ((AltResult)r).ex;
                    s = null;
                } else {
                    x = null;
                    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") S ss = (S) r;
                    s = ss;
                }
                completeValue(f.apply(s, x));
            } catch (Throwable ex) {
                completeThrowable(ex);
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    private <V> CompletableFuture<V> uniHandleStage(
        Executor e, BiFunction<? super T, Throwable, ? extends V> f) {
        if (f == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        CompletableFuture<V> d = new CompletableFuture<V>();
        if (e != null || !d.uniHandle(this, f, null)) {
            UniHandle<T,V> c = new UniHandle<T,V>(e, d, this, f);
            push(c);
            c.tryFire(SYNC);
        }
        return d;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class UniExceptionally<T> extends UniCompletion<T,T> {
        Function<? super Throwable, ? extends T> fn;
        UniExceptionally(CompletableFuture<T> dep, CompletableFuture<T> src,
                         Function<? super Throwable, ? extends T> fn) {
            super(null, dep, src); this.fn = fn;
        }
        final CompletableFuture<T> tryFire(int mode) { // never ASYNC
            // assert mode != ASYNC;
            CompletableFuture<T> d; CompletableFuture<T> a;
            if ((d = dep) == null || !d.uniExceptionally(a = src, fn, this))
                return null;
            dep = null; src = null; fn = null;
            return d.postFire(a, mode);
        }
    }

    final boolean uniExceptionally(CompletableFuture<T> a,
                                   Function<? super Throwable, ? extends T> f,
                                   UniExceptionally<T> c) {
        Object r; Throwable x;
        if (a == null || (r = a.result) == null || f == null)
            return false;
        if (result == null) {
            try {
                if (r instanceof AltResult && (x = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null) {
                    if (c != null && !c.claim())
                        return false;
                    completeValue(f.apply(x));
                } else
                    internalComplete(r);
            } catch (Throwable ex) {
                completeThrowable(ex);
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    private CompletableFuture<T> uniExceptionallyStage(
        Function<Throwable, ? extends T> f) {
        if (f == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        CompletableFuture<T> d = new CompletableFuture<T>();
        if (!d.uniExceptionally(this, f, null)) {
            UniExceptionally<T> c = new UniExceptionally<T>(d, this, f);
            push(c);
            c.tryFire(SYNC);
        }
        return d;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class UniRelay<T> extends UniCompletion<T,T> { // for Compose
        UniRelay(CompletableFuture<T> dep, CompletableFuture<T> src) {
            super(null, dep, src);
        }
        final CompletableFuture<T> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<T> d; CompletableFuture<T> a;
            if ((d = dep) == null || !d.uniRelay(a = src))
                return null;
            src = null; dep = null;
            return d.postFire(a, mode);
        }
    }

    final boolean uniRelay(CompletableFuture<T> a) {
        Object r;
        if (a == null || (r = a.result) == null)
            return false;
        if (result == null) // no need to claim
            completeRelay(r);
        return true;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class UniCompose<T,V> extends UniCompletion<T,V> {
        Function<? super T, ? extends CompletionStage<V>> fn;
        UniCompose(Executor executor, CompletableFuture<V> dep,
                   CompletableFuture<T> src,
                   Function<? super T, ? extends CompletionStage<V>> fn) {
            super(executor, dep, src); this.fn = fn;
        }
        final CompletableFuture<V> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<V> d; CompletableFuture<T> a;
            if ((d = dep) == null ||
                !d.uniCompose(a = src, fn, mode > 0 ? null : this))
                return null;
            dep = null; src = null; fn = null;
            return d.postFire(a, mode);
        }
    }

    final <S> boolean uniCompose(
        CompletableFuture<S> a,
        Function<? super S, ? extends CompletionStage<T>> f,
        UniCompose<S,T> c) {
        Object r; Throwable x;
        if (a == null || (r = a.result) == null || f == null)
            return false;
        tryComplete: if (result == null) {
            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
                if ((x = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null) {
                    completeThrowable(x, r);
                    break tryComplete;
                }
                r = null;
            }
            try {
                if (c != null && !c.claim())
                    return false;
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") S s = (S) r;
                CompletableFuture<T> g = f.apply(s).toCompletableFuture();
                if (g.result == null || !uniRelay(g)) {
                    UniRelay<T> copy = new UniRelay<T>(this, g);
                    g.push(copy);
                    copy.tryFire(SYNC);
                    if (result == null)
                        return false;
                }
            } catch (Throwable ex) {
                completeThrowable(ex);
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    private <V> CompletableFuture<V> uniComposeStage(
        Executor e, Function<? super T, ? extends CompletionStage<V>> f) {
        if (f == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        Object r; Throwable x;
        if (e == null && (r = result) != null) {
            // try to return function result directly
            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
                if ((x = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null) {
                    return new CompletableFuture<V>(encodeThrowable(x, r));
                }
                r = null;
            }
            try {
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") T t = (T) r;
                CompletableFuture<V> g = f.apply(t).toCompletableFuture();
                Object s = g.result;
                if (s != null)
                    return new CompletableFuture<V>(encodeRelay(s));
                CompletableFuture<V> d = new CompletableFuture<V>();
                UniRelay<V> copy = new UniRelay<V>(d, g);
                g.push(copy);
                copy.tryFire(SYNC);
                return d;
            } catch (Throwable ex) {
                return new CompletableFuture<V>(encodeThrowable(ex));
            }
        }
        CompletableFuture<V> d = new CompletableFuture<V>();
        UniCompose<T,V> c = new UniCompose<T,V>(e, d, this, f);
        push(c);
        c.tryFire(SYNC);
        return d;
    }

    /* ------------- Two-input Completions -------------- */

    /** A Completion for an action with two sources */
    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    abstract static class BiCompletion<T,U,V> extends UniCompletion<T,V> {
        CompletableFuture<U> snd; // second source for action
        BiCompletion(Executor executor, CompletableFuture<V> dep,
                     CompletableFuture<T> src, CompletableFuture<U> snd) {
            super(executor, dep, src); this.snd = snd;
        }
    }

    /** A Completion delegating to a BiCompletion */
    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class CoCompletion extends Completion {
        BiCompletion<?,?,?> base;
        CoCompletion(BiCompletion<?,?,?> base) { this.base = base; }
        final CompletableFuture<?> tryFire(int mode) {
            BiCompletion<?,?,?> c; CompletableFuture<?> d;
            if ((c = base) == null || (d = c.tryFire(mode)) == null)
                return null;
            base = null; // detach
            return d;
        }
        final boolean isLive() {
            BiCompletion<?,?,?> c;
            return (c = base) != null && c.dep != null;
        }
    }

    /** Pushes completion to this and b unless both done. */
    final void bipush(CompletableFuture<?> b, BiCompletion<?,?,?> c) {
        if (c != null) {
            Object r;
            while ((r = result) == null && !tryPushStack(c))
                lazySetNext(c, null); // clear on failure
            if (b != null && b != this && b.result == null) {
                Completion q = (r != null) ? c : new CoCompletion(c);
                while (b.result == null && !b.tryPushStack(q))
                    lazySetNext(q, null); // clear on failure
            }
        }
    }

    /** Post-processing after successful BiCompletion tryFire. */
    final CompletableFuture<T> postFire(CompletableFuture<?> a,
                                        CompletableFuture<?> b, int mode) {
        if (b != null && b.stack != null) { // clean second source
            if (mode < 0 || b.result == null)
                b.cleanStack();
            else
                b.postComplete();
        }
        return postFire(a, mode);
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class BiApply<T,U,V> extends BiCompletion<T,U,V> {
        BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> fn;
        BiApply(Executor executor, CompletableFuture<V> dep,
                CompletableFuture<T> src, CompletableFuture<U> snd,
                BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> fn) {
            super(executor, dep, src, snd); this.fn = fn;
        }
        final CompletableFuture<V> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<V> d;
            CompletableFuture<T> a;
            CompletableFuture<U> b;
            if ((d = dep) == null ||
                !d.biApply(a = src, b = snd, fn, mode > 0 ? null : this))
                return null;
            dep = null; src = null; snd = null; fn = null;
            return d.postFire(a, b, mode);
        }
    }

    final <R,S> boolean biApply(CompletableFuture<R> a,
                                CompletableFuture<S> b,
                                BiFunction<? super R,? super S,? extends T> f,
                                BiApply<R,S,T> c) {
        Object r, s; Throwable x;
        if (a == null || (r = a.result) == null ||
            b == null || (s = b.result) == null || f == null)
            return false;
        tryComplete: if (result == null) {
            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
                if ((x = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null) {
                    completeThrowable(x, r);
                    break tryComplete;
                }
                r = null;
            }
            if (s instanceof AltResult) {
                if ((x = ((AltResult)s).ex) != null) {
                    completeThrowable(x, s);
                    break tryComplete;
                }
                s = null;
            }
            try {
                if (c != null && !c.claim())
                    return false;
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") R rr = (R) r;
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") S ss = (S) s;
                completeValue(f.apply(rr, ss));
            } catch (Throwable ex) {
                completeThrowable(ex);
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    private <U,V> CompletableFuture<V> biApplyStage(
        Executor e, CompletionStage<U> o,
        BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> f) {
        CompletableFuture<U> b;
        if (f == null || (b = o.toCompletableFuture()) == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        CompletableFuture<V> d = new CompletableFuture<V>();
        if (e != null || !d.biApply(this, b, f, null)) {
            BiApply<T,U,V> c = new BiApply<T,U,V>(e, d, this, b, f);
            bipush(b, c);
            c.tryFire(SYNC);
        }
        return d;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class BiAccept<T,U> extends BiCompletion<T,U,Void> {
        BiConsumer<? super T,? super U> fn;
        BiAccept(Executor executor, CompletableFuture<Void> dep,
                 CompletableFuture<T> src, CompletableFuture<U> snd,
                 BiConsumer<? super T,? super U> fn) {
            super(executor, dep, src, snd); this.fn = fn;
        }
        final CompletableFuture<Void> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<Void> d;
            CompletableFuture<T> a;
            CompletableFuture<U> b;
            if ((d = dep) == null ||
                !d.biAccept(a = src, b = snd, fn, mode > 0 ? null : this))
                return null;
            dep = null; src = null; snd = null; fn = null;
            return d.postFire(a, b, mode);
        }
    }

    final <R,S> boolean biAccept(CompletableFuture<R> a,
                                 CompletableFuture<S> b,
                                 BiConsumer<? super R,? super S> f,
                                 BiAccept<R,S> c) {
        Object r, s; Throwable x;
        if (a == null || (r = a.result) == null ||
            b == null || (s = b.result) == null || f == null)
            return false;
        tryComplete: if (result == null) {
            if (r instanceof AltResult) {
                if ((x = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null) {
                    completeThrowable(x, r);
                    break tryComplete;
                }
                r = null;
            }
            if (s instanceof AltResult) {
                if ((x = ((AltResult)s).ex) != null) {
                    completeThrowable(x, s);
                    break tryComplete;
                }
                s = null;
            }
            try {
                if (c != null && !c.claim())
                    return false;
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") R rr = (R) r;
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") S ss = (S) s;
                f.accept(rr, ss);
                completeNull();
            } catch (Throwable ex) {
                completeThrowable(ex);
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    private <U> CompletableFuture<Void> biAcceptStage(
        Executor e, CompletionStage<U> o,
        BiConsumer<? super T,? super U> f) {
        CompletableFuture<U> b;
        if (f == null || (b = o.toCompletableFuture()) == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        CompletableFuture<Void> d = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
        if (e != null || !d.biAccept(this, b, f, null)) {
            BiAccept<T,U> c = new BiAccept<T,U>(e, d, this, b, f);
            bipush(b, c);
            c.tryFire(SYNC);
        }
        return d;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class BiRun<T,U> extends BiCompletion<T,U,Void> {
        Runnable fn;
        BiRun(Executor executor, CompletableFuture<Void> dep,
              CompletableFuture<T> src,
              CompletableFuture<U> snd,
              Runnable fn) {
            super(executor, dep, src, snd); this.fn = fn;
        }
        final CompletableFuture<Void> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<Void> d;
            CompletableFuture<T> a;
            CompletableFuture<U> b;
            if ((d = dep) == null ||
                !d.biRun(a = src, b = snd, fn, mode > 0 ? null : this))
                return null;
            dep = null; src = null; snd = null; fn = null;
            return d.postFire(a, b, mode);
        }
    }

    final boolean biRun(CompletableFuture<?> a, CompletableFuture<?> b,
                        Runnable f, BiRun<?,?> c) {
        Object r, s; Throwable x;
        if (a == null || (r = a.result) == null ||
            b == null || (s = b.result) == null || f == null)
            return false;
        if (result == null) {
            if (r instanceof AltResult && (x = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null)
                completeThrowable(x, r);
            else if (s instanceof AltResult && (x = ((AltResult)s).ex) != null)
                completeThrowable(x, s);
            else
                try {
                    if (c != null && !c.claim())
                        return false;
                    f.run();
                    completeNull();
                } catch (Throwable ex) {
                    completeThrowable(ex);
                }
        }
        return true;
    }

    private CompletableFuture<Void> biRunStage(Executor e, CompletionStage<?> o,
                                               Runnable f) {
        CompletableFuture<?> b;
        if (f == null || (b = o.toCompletableFuture()) == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        CompletableFuture<Void> d = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
        if (e != null || !d.biRun(this, b, f, null)) {
            BiRun<T,?> c = new BiRun<>(e, d, this, b, f);
            bipush(b, c);
            c.tryFire(SYNC);
        }
        return d;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class BiRelay<T,U> extends BiCompletion<T,U,Void> { // for And
        BiRelay(CompletableFuture<Void> dep,
                CompletableFuture<T> src,
                CompletableFuture<U> snd) {
            super(null, dep, src, snd);
        }
        final CompletableFuture<Void> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<Void> d;
            CompletableFuture<T> a;
            CompletableFuture<U> b;
            if ((d = dep) == null || !d.biRelay(a = src, b = snd))
                return null;
            src = null; snd = null; dep = null;
            return d.postFire(a, b, mode);
        }
    }

    boolean biRelay(CompletableFuture<?> a, CompletableFuture<?> b) {
        Object r, s; Throwable x;
        if (a == null || (r = a.result) == null ||
            b == null || (s = b.result) == null)
            return false;
        if (result == null) {
            if (r instanceof AltResult && (x = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null)
                completeThrowable(x, r);
            else if (s instanceof AltResult && (x = ((AltResult)s).ex) != null)
                completeThrowable(x, s);
            else
                completeNull();
        }
        return true;
    }

    /** Recursively constructs a tree of completions. */
    static CompletableFuture<Void> andTree(CompletableFuture<?>[] cfs,
                                           int lo, int hi) {
        CompletableFuture<Void> d = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
        if (lo > hi) // empty
            d.result = NIL;
        else {
            CompletableFuture<?> a, b;
            int mid = (lo + hi) >>> 1;
            if ((a = (lo == mid ? cfs[lo] :
                      andTree(cfs, lo, mid))) == null ||
                (b = (lo == hi ? a : (hi == mid+1) ? cfs[hi] :
                      andTree(cfs, mid+1, hi)))  == null)
                throw new NullPointerException();
            if (!d.biRelay(a, b)) {
                BiRelay<?,?> c = new BiRelay<>(d, a, b);
                a.bipush(b, c);
                c.tryFire(SYNC);
            }
        }
        return d;
    }

    /* ------------- Projected (Ored) BiCompletions -------------- */

    /** Pushes completion to this and b unless either done. */
    final void orpush(CompletableFuture<?> b, BiCompletion<?,?,?> c) {
        if (c != null) {
            while ((b == null || b.result == null) && result == null) {
                if (tryPushStack(c)) {
                    if (b != null && b != this && b.result == null) {
                        Completion q = new CoCompletion(c);
                        while (result == null && b.result == null &&
                               !b.tryPushStack(q))
                            lazySetNext(q, null); // clear on failure
                    }
                    break;
                }
                lazySetNext(c, null); // clear on failure
            }
        }
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class OrApply<T,U extends T,V> extends BiCompletion<T,U,V> {
        Function<? super T,? extends V> fn;
        OrApply(Executor executor, CompletableFuture<V> dep,
                CompletableFuture<T> src,
                CompletableFuture<U> snd,
                Function<? super T,? extends V> fn) {
            super(executor, dep, src, snd); this.fn = fn;
        }
        final CompletableFuture<V> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<V> d;
            CompletableFuture<T> a;
            CompletableFuture<U> b;
            if ((d = dep) == null ||
                !d.orApply(a = src, b = snd, fn, mode > 0 ? null : this))
                return null;
            dep = null; src = null; snd = null; fn = null;
            return d.postFire(a, b, mode);
        }
    }

    final <R,S extends R> boolean orApply(CompletableFuture<R> a,
                                          CompletableFuture<S> b,
                                          Function<? super R, ? extends T> f,
                                          OrApply<R,S,T> c) {
        Object r; Throwable x;
        if (a == null || b == null ||
            ((r = a.result) == null && (r = b.result) == null) || f == null)
            return false;
        tryComplete: if (result == null) {
            try {
                if (c != null && !c.claim())
                    return false;
                if (r instanceof AltResult) {
                    if ((x = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null) {
                        completeThrowable(x, r);
                        break tryComplete;
                    }
                    r = null;
                }
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") R rr = (R) r;
                completeValue(f.apply(rr));
            } catch (Throwable ex) {
                completeThrowable(ex);
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    private <U extends T,V> CompletableFuture<V> orApplyStage(
        Executor e, CompletionStage<U> o,
        Function<? super T, ? extends V> f) {
        CompletableFuture<U> b;
        if (f == null || (b = o.toCompletableFuture()) == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        CompletableFuture<V> d = new CompletableFuture<V>();
        if (e != null || !d.orApply(this, b, f, null)) {
            OrApply<T,U,V> c = new OrApply<T,U,V>(e, d, this, b, f);
            orpush(b, c);
            c.tryFire(SYNC);
        }
        return d;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class OrAccept<T,U extends T> extends BiCompletion<T,U,Void> {
        Consumer<? super T> fn;
        OrAccept(Executor executor, CompletableFuture<Void> dep,
                 CompletableFuture<T> src,
                 CompletableFuture<U> snd,
                 Consumer<? super T> fn) {
            super(executor, dep, src, snd); this.fn = fn;
        }
        final CompletableFuture<Void> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<Void> d;
            CompletableFuture<T> a;
            CompletableFuture<U> b;
            if ((d = dep) == null ||
                !d.orAccept(a = src, b = snd, fn, mode > 0 ? null : this))
                return null;
            dep = null; src = null; snd = null; fn = null;
            return d.postFire(a, b, mode);
        }
    }

    final <R,S extends R> boolean orAccept(CompletableFuture<R> a,
                                           CompletableFuture<S> b,
                                           Consumer<? super R> f,
                                           OrAccept<R,S> c) {
        Object r; Throwable x;
        if (a == null || b == null ||
            ((r = a.result) == null && (r = b.result) == null) || f == null)
            return false;
        tryComplete: if (result == null) {
            try {
                if (c != null && !c.claim())
                    return false;
                if (r instanceof AltResult) {
                    if ((x = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null) {
                        completeThrowable(x, r);
                        break tryComplete;
                    }
                    r = null;
                }
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") R rr = (R) r;
                f.accept(rr);
                completeNull();
            } catch (Throwable ex) {
                completeThrowable(ex);
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    private <U extends T> CompletableFuture<Void> orAcceptStage(
        Executor e, CompletionStage<U> o, Consumer<? super T> f) {
        CompletableFuture<U> b;
        if (f == null || (b = o.toCompletableFuture()) == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        CompletableFuture<Void> d = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
        if (e != null || !d.orAccept(this, b, f, null)) {
            OrAccept<T,U> c = new OrAccept<T,U>(e, d, this, b, f);
            orpush(b, c);
            c.tryFire(SYNC);
        }
        return d;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class OrRun<T,U> extends BiCompletion<T,U,Void> {
        Runnable fn;
        OrRun(Executor executor, CompletableFuture<Void> dep,
              CompletableFuture<T> src,
              CompletableFuture<U> snd,
              Runnable fn) {
            super(executor, dep, src, snd); this.fn = fn;
        }
        final CompletableFuture<Void> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<Void> d;
            CompletableFuture<T> a;
            CompletableFuture<U> b;
            if ((d = dep) == null ||
                !d.orRun(a = src, b = snd, fn, mode > 0 ? null : this))
                return null;
            dep = null; src = null; snd = null; fn = null;
            return d.postFire(a, b, mode);
        }
    }

    final boolean orRun(CompletableFuture<?> a, CompletableFuture<?> b,
                        Runnable f, OrRun<?,?> c) {
        Object r; Throwable x;
        if (a == null || b == null ||
            ((r = a.result) == null && (r = b.result) == null) || f == null)
            return false;
        if (result == null) {
            try {
                if (c != null && !c.claim())
                    return false;
                if (r instanceof AltResult && (x = ((AltResult)r).ex) != null)
                    completeThrowable(x, r);
                else {
                    f.run();
                    completeNull();
                }
            } catch (Throwable ex) {
                completeThrowable(ex);
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

    private CompletableFuture<Void> orRunStage(Executor e, CompletionStage<?> o,
                                               Runnable f) {
        CompletableFuture<?> b;
        if (f == null || (b = o.toCompletableFuture()) == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        CompletableFuture<Void> d = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
        if (e != null || !d.orRun(this, b, f, null)) {
            OrRun<T,?> c = new OrRun<>(e, d, this, b, f);
            orpush(b, c);
            c.tryFire(SYNC);
        }
        return d;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class OrRelay<T,U> extends BiCompletion<T,U,Object> { // for Or
        OrRelay(CompletableFuture<Object> dep, CompletableFuture<T> src,
                CompletableFuture<U> snd) {
            super(null, dep, src, snd);
        }
        final CompletableFuture<Object> tryFire(int mode) {
            CompletableFuture<Object> d;
            CompletableFuture<T> a;
            CompletableFuture<U> b;
            if ((d = dep) == null || !d.orRelay(a = src, b = snd))
                return null;
            src = null; snd = null; dep = null;
            return d.postFire(a, b, mode);
        }
    }

    final boolean orRelay(CompletableFuture<?> a, CompletableFuture<?> b) {
        Object r;
        if (a == null || b == null ||
            ((r = a.result) == null && (r = b.result) == null))
            return false;
        if (result == null)
            completeRelay(r);
        return true;
    }

    /** Recursively constructs a tree of completions. */
    static CompletableFuture<Object> orTree(CompletableFuture<?>[] cfs,
                                            int lo, int hi) {
        CompletableFuture<Object> d = new CompletableFuture<Object>();
        if (lo <= hi) {
            CompletableFuture<?> a, b;
            int mid = (lo + hi) >>> 1;
            if ((a = (lo == mid ? cfs[lo] :
                      orTree(cfs, lo, mid))) == null ||
                (b = (lo == hi ? a : (hi == mid+1) ? cfs[hi] :
                      orTree(cfs, mid+1, hi)))  == null)
                throw new NullPointerException();
            if (!d.orRelay(a, b)) {
                OrRelay<?,?> c = new OrRelay<>(d, a, b);
                a.orpush(b, c);
                c.tryFire(SYNC);
            }
        }
        return d;
    }

    /* ------------- Zero-input Async forms -------------- */

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class AsyncSupply<T> extends ForkJoinTask<Void>
            implements Runnable, AsynchronousCompletionTask {
        CompletableFuture<T> dep; Supplier<T> fn;
        AsyncSupply(CompletableFuture<T> dep, Supplier<T> fn) {
            this.dep = dep; this.fn = fn;
        }

        public final Void getRawResult() { return null; }
        public final void setRawResult(Void v) {}
        public final boolean exec() { run(); return true; }

        public void run() {
            CompletableFuture<T> d; Supplier<T> f;
            if ((d = dep) != null && (f = fn) != null) {
                dep = null; fn = null;
                if (d.result == null) {
                    try {
                        d.completeValue(f.get());
                    } catch (Throwable ex) {
                        d.completeThrowable(ex);
                    }
                }
                d.postComplete();
            }
        }
    }

    static <U> CompletableFuture<U> asyncSupplyStage(Executor e,
                                                     Supplier<U> f) {
        if (f == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        CompletableFuture<U> d = new CompletableFuture<U>();
        e.execute(new AsyncSupply<U>(d, f));
        return d;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class AsyncRun extends ForkJoinTask<Void>
            implements Runnable, AsynchronousCompletionTask {
        CompletableFuture<Void> dep; Runnable fn;
        AsyncRun(CompletableFuture<Void> dep, Runnable fn) {
            this.dep = dep; this.fn = fn;
        }

        public final Void getRawResult() { return null; }
        public final void setRawResult(Void v) {}
        public final boolean exec() { run(); return true; }

        public void run() {
            CompletableFuture<Void> d; Runnable f;
            if ((d = dep) != null && (f = fn) != null) {
                dep = null; fn = null;
                if (d.result == null) {
                    try {
                        f.run();
                        d.completeNull();
                    } catch (Throwable ex) {
                        d.completeThrowable(ex);
                    }
                }
                d.postComplete();
            }
        }
    }

    static CompletableFuture<Void> asyncRunStage(Executor e, Runnable f) {
        if (f == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        CompletableFuture<Void> d = new CompletableFuture<Void>();
        e.execute(new AsyncRun(d, f));
        return d;
    }

    /* ------------- Signallers -------------- */

    /**
     * Completion for recording and releasing a waiting thread.  This
     * class implements ManagedBlocker to avoid starvation when
     * blocking actions pile up in ForkJoinPools.
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("serial")
    static final class Signaller extends Completion
        implements ForkJoinPool.ManagedBlocker {
        long nanos;                    // wait time if timed
        final long deadline;           // non-zero if timed
        volatile int interruptControl; // > 0: interruptible, < 0: interrupted
        volatile Thread thread;

        Signaller(boolean interruptible, long nanos, long deadline) {
            this.thread = Thread.currentThread();
            this.interruptControl = interruptible ? 1 : 0;
            this.nanos = nanos;
            this.deadline = deadline;
        }
        final CompletableFuture<?> tryFire(int ignore) {
            Thread w; // no need to atomically claim
            if ((w = thread) != null) {
                thread = null;
                LockSupport.unpark(w);
            }
            return null;
        }
        public boolean isReleasable() {
            if (thread == null)
                return true;
            if (Thread.interrupted()) {
                int i = interruptControl;
                interruptControl = -1;
                if (i > 0)
                    return true;
            }
            if (deadline != 0L &&
                (nanos <= 0L || (nanos = deadline - System.nanoTime()) <= 0L)) {
                thread = null;
                return true;
            }
            return false;
        }
        public boolean block() {
            if (isReleasable())
                return true;
            else if (deadline == 0L)
                LockSupport.park(this);
            else if (nanos > 0L)
                LockSupport.parkNanos(this, nanos);
            return isReleasable();
        }
        final boolean isLive() { return thread != null; }
    }

    /**
     * Returns raw result after waiting, or null if interruptible and
     * interrupted.
     */
    private Object waitingGet(boolean interruptible) {
        Signaller q = null;
        boolean queued = false;
        int spins = -1;
        Object r;
        while ((r = result) == null) {
            if (spins < 0)
                spins = (Runtime.getRuntime().availableProcessors() > 1) ?
                    1 << 8 : 0; // Use brief spin-wait on multiprocessors
            else if (spins > 0) {
                if (ThreadLocalRandom.nextSecondarySeed() >= 0)
                    --spins;
            }
            else if (q == null)
                q = new Signaller(interruptible, 0L, 0L);
            else if (!queued)
                queued = tryPushStack(q);
            else if (interruptible && q.interruptControl < 0) {
                q.thread = null;
                cleanStack();
                return null;
            }
            else if (q.thread != null && result == null) {
                try {
                    ForkJoinPool.managedBlock(q);
                } catch (InterruptedException ie) {
                    q.interruptControl = -1;
                }
            }
        }
        if (q != null) {
            q.thread = null;
            if (q.interruptControl < 0) {
                if (interruptible)
                    r = null; // report interruption
                else
                    Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
            }
        }
        postComplete();
        return r;
    }

    /**
     * Returns raw result after waiting, or null if interrupted, or
     * throws TimeoutException on timeout.
     */
    private Object timedGet(long nanos) throws TimeoutException {
        if (Thread.interrupted())
            return null;
        if (nanos <= 0L)
            throw new TimeoutException();
        long d = System.nanoTime() + nanos;
        Signaller q = new Signaller(true, nanos, d == 0L ? 1L : d); // avoid 0
        boolean queued = false;
        Object r;
        // We intentionally don't spin here (as waitingGet does) because
        // the call to nanoTime() above acts much like a spin.
        while ((r = result) == null) {
            if (!queued)
                queued = tryPushStack(q);
            else if (q.interruptControl < 0 || q.nanos <= 0L) {
                q.thread = null;
                cleanStack();
                if (q.interruptControl < 0)
                    return null;
                throw new TimeoutException();
            }
            else if (q.thread != null && result == null) {
                try {
                    ForkJoinPool.managedBlock(q);
                } catch (InterruptedException ie) {
                    q.interruptControl = -1;
                }
            }
        }
        if (q.interruptControl < 0)
            r = null;
        q.thread = null;
        postComplete();
        return r;
    }

    /* ------------- public methods -------------- */

    /**
     * Creates a new incomplete CompletableFuture.
     */
    public CompletableFuture() {
    }

    /**
     * Creates a new complete CompletableFuture with given encoded result.
     */
    private CompletableFuture(Object r) {
        this.result = r;
    }

    /**
     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
     * by a task running in the {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool()} with
     * the value obtained by calling the given Supplier.
     *
     * @param supplier a function returning the value to be used
     * to complete the returned CompletableFuture
     * @param <U> the function's return type
     * @return the new CompletableFuture
     */
    public static <U> CompletableFuture<U> supplyAsync(Supplier<U> supplier) {
        return asyncSupplyStage(asyncPool, supplier);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
     * by a task running in the given executor with the value obtained
     * by calling the given Supplier.
     *
     * @param supplier a function returning the value to be used
     * to complete the returned CompletableFuture
     * @param executor the executor to use for asynchronous execution
     * @param <U> the function's return type
     * @return the new CompletableFuture
     */
    public static <U> CompletableFuture<U> supplyAsync(Supplier<U> supplier,
                                                       Executor executor) {
        return asyncSupplyStage(screenExecutor(executor), supplier);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
     * by a task running in the {@link ForkJoinPool#commonPool()} after
     * it runs the given action.
     *
     * @param runnable the action to run before completing the
     * returned CompletableFuture
     * @return the new CompletableFuture
     */
    public static CompletableFuture<Void> runAsync(Runnable runnable) {
        return asyncRunStage(asyncPool, runnable);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is asynchronously completed
     * by a task running in the given executor after it runs the given
     * action.
     *
     * @param runnable the action to run before completing the
     * returned CompletableFuture
     * @param executor the executor to use for asynchronous execution
     * @return the new CompletableFuture
     */
    public static CompletableFuture<Void> runAsync(Runnable runnable,
                                                   Executor executor) {
        return asyncRunStage(screenExecutor(executor), runnable);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is already completed with
     * the given value.
     *
     * @param value the value
     * @param <U> the type of the value
     * @return the completed CompletableFuture
     */
    public static <U> CompletableFuture<U> completedFuture(U value) {
        return new CompletableFuture<U>((value == null) ? NIL : value);
    }

    /**
     * Returns {@code true} if completed in any fashion: normally,
     * exceptionally, or via cancellation.
     *
     * @return {@code true} if completed
     */
    public boolean isDone() {
        return result != null;
    }

    /**
     * Waits if necessary for this future to complete, and then
     * returns its result.
     *
     * @return the result value
     * @throws CancellationException if this future was cancelled
     * @throws ExecutionException if this future completed exceptionally
     * @throws InterruptedException if the current thread was interrupted
     * while waiting
     */
    public T get() throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
        Object r;
        return reportGet((r = result) == null ? waitingGet(true) : r);
    }

    /**
     * Waits if necessary for at most the given time for this future
     * to complete, and then returns its result, if available.
     *
     * @param timeout the maximum time to wait
     * @param unit the time unit of the timeout argument
     * @return the result value
     * @throws CancellationException if this future was cancelled
     * @throws ExecutionException if this future completed exceptionally
     * @throws InterruptedException if the current thread was interrupted
     * while waiting
     * @throws TimeoutException if the wait timed out
     */
    public T get(long timeout, TimeUnit unit)
        throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException, TimeoutException {
        Object r;
        long nanos = unit.toNanos(timeout);
        return reportGet((r = result) == null ? timedGet(nanos) : r);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the result value when complete, or throws an
     * (unchecked) exception if completed exceptionally. To better
     * conform with the use of common functional forms, if a
     * computation involved in the completion of this
     * CompletableFuture threw an exception, this method throws an
     * (unchecked) {@link CompletionException} with the underlying
     * exception as its cause.
     *
     * @return the result value
     * @throws CancellationException if the computation was cancelled
     * @throws CompletionException if this future completed
     * exceptionally or a completion computation threw an exception
     */
    public T join() {
        Object r;
        return reportJoin((r = result) == null ? waitingGet(false) : r);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the result value (or throws any encountered exception)
     * if completed, else returns the given valueIfAbsent.
     *
     * @param valueIfAbsent the value to return if not completed
     * @return the result value, if completed, else the given valueIfAbsent
     * @throws CancellationException if the computation was cancelled
     * @throws CompletionException if this future completed
     * exceptionally or a completion computation threw an exception
     */
    public T getNow(T valueIfAbsent) {
        Object r;
        return ((r = result) == null) ? valueIfAbsent : reportJoin(r);
    }

    /**
     * If not already completed, sets the value returned by {@link
     * #get()} and related methods to the given value.
     *
     * @param value the result value
     * @return {@code true} if this invocation caused this CompletableFuture
     * to transition to a completed state, else {@code false}
     */
    public boolean complete(T value) {
        boolean triggered = completeValue(value);
        postComplete();
        return triggered;
    }

    /**
     * If not already completed, causes invocations of {@link #get()}
     * and related methods to throw the given exception.
     *
     * @param ex the exception
     * @return {@code true} if this invocation caused this CompletableFuture
     * to transition to a completed state, else {@code false}
     */
    public boolean completeExceptionally(Throwable ex) {
        if (ex == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        boolean triggered = internalComplete(new AltResult(ex));
        postComplete();
        return triggered;
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> thenApply(
        Function<? super T,? extends U> fn) {
        return uniApplyStage(null, fn);
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> thenApplyAsync(
        Function<? super T,? extends U> fn) {
        return uniApplyStage(asyncPool, fn);
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> thenApplyAsync(
        Function<? super T,? extends U> fn, Executor executor) {
        return uniApplyStage(screenExecutor(executor), fn);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> thenAccept(Consumer<? super T> action) {
        return uniAcceptStage(null, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> thenAcceptAsync(Consumer<? super T> action) {
        return uniAcceptStage(asyncPool, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> thenAcceptAsync(Consumer<? super T> action,
                                                   Executor executor) {
        return uniAcceptStage(screenExecutor(executor), action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> thenRun(Runnable action) {
        return uniRunStage(null, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> thenRunAsync(Runnable action) {
        return uniRunStage(asyncPool, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> thenRunAsync(Runnable action,
                                                Executor executor) {
        return uniRunStage(screenExecutor(executor), action);
    }

    public <U,V> CompletableFuture<V> thenCombine(
        CompletionStage<? extends U> other,
        BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> fn) {
        return biApplyStage(null, other, fn);
    }

    public <U,V> CompletableFuture<V> thenCombineAsync(
        CompletionStage<? extends U> other,
        BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> fn) {
        return biApplyStage(asyncPool, other, fn);
    }

    public <U,V> CompletableFuture<V> thenCombineAsync(
        CompletionStage<? extends U> other,
        BiFunction<? super T,? super U,? extends V> fn, Executor executor) {
        return biApplyStage(screenExecutor(executor), other, fn);
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<Void> thenAcceptBoth(
        CompletionStage<? extends U> other,
        BiConsumer<? super T, ? super U> action) {
        return biAcceptStage(null, other, action);
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<Void> thenAcceptBothAsync(
        CompletionStage<? extends U> other,
        BiConsumer<? super T, ? super U> action) {
        return biAcceptStage(asyncPool, other, action);
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<Void> thenAcceptBothAsync(
        CompletionStage<? extends U> other,
        BiConsumer<? super T, ? super U> action, Executor executor) {
        return biAcceptStage(screenExecutor(executor), other, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> runAfterBoth(CompletionStage<?> other,
                                                Runnable action) {
        return biRunStage(null, other, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> runAfterBothAsync(CompletionStage<?> other,
                                                     Runnable action) {
        return biRunStage(asyncPool, other, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> runAfterBothAsync(CompletionStage<?> other,
                                                     Runnable action,
                                                     Executor executor) {
        return biRunStage(screenExecutor(executor), other, action);
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> applyToEither(
        CompletionStage<? extends T> other, Function<? super T, U> fn) {
        return orApplyStage(null, other, fn);
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> applyToEitherAsync(
        CompletionStage<? extends T> other, Function<? super T, U> fn) {
        return orApplyStage(asyncPool, other, fn);
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> applyToEitherAsync(
        CompletionStage<? extends T> other, Function<? super T, U> fn,
        Executor executor) {
        return orApplyStage(screenExecutor(executor), other, fn);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> acceptEither(
        CompletionStage<? extends T> other, Consumer<? super T> action) {
        return orAcceptStage(null, other, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> acceptEitherAsync(
        CompletionStage<? extends T> other, Consumer<? super T> action) {
        return orAcceptStage(asyncPool, other, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> acceptEitherAsync(
        CompletionStage<? extends T> other, Consumer<? super T> action,
        Executor executor) {
        return orAcceptStage(screenExecutor(executor), other, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> runAfterEither(CompletionStage<?> other,
                                                  Runnable action) {
        return orRunStage(null, other, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> runAfterEitherAsync(CompletionStage<?> other,
                                                       Runnable action) {
        return orRunStage(asyncPool, other, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<Void> runAfterEitherAsync(CompletionStage<?> other,
                                                       Runnable action,
                                                       Executor executor) {
        return orRunStage(screenExecutor(executor), other, action);
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> thenCompose(
        Function<? super T, ? extends CompletionStage<U>> fn) {
        return uniComposeStage(null, fn);
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> thenComposeAsync(
        Function<? super T, ? extends CompletionStage<U>> fn) {
        return uniComposeStage(asyncPool, fn);
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> thenComposeAsync(
        Function<? super T, ? extends CompletionStage<U>> fn,
        Executor executor) {
        return uniComposeStage(screenExecutor(executor), fn);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<T> whenComplete(
        BiConsumer<? super T, ? super Throwable> action) {
        return uniWhenCompleteStage(null, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<T> whenCompleteAsync(
        BiConsumer<? super T, ? super Throwable> action) {
        return uniWhenCompleteStage(asyncPool, action);
    }

    public CompletableFuture<T> whenCompleteAsync(
        BiConsumer<? super T, ? super Throwable> action, Executor executor) {
        return uniWhenCompleteStage(screenExecutor(executor), action);
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> handle(
        BiFunction<? super T, Throwable, ? extends U> fn) {
        return uniHandleStage(null, fn);
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> handleAsync(
        BiFunction<? super T, Throwable, ? extends U> fn) {
        return uniHandleStage(asyncPool, fn);
    }

    public <U> CompletableFuture<U> handleAsync(
        BiFunction<? super T, Throwable, ? extends U> fn, Executor executor) {
        return uniHandleStage(screenExecutor(executor), fn);
    }

    /**
     * Returns this CompletableFuture.
     *
     * @return this CompletableFuture
     */
    public CompletableFuture<T> toCompletableFuture() {
        return this;
    }

    // not in interface CompletionStage

    /**
     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed when this
     * CompletableFuture completes, with the result of the given
     * function of the exception triggering this CompletableFuture's
     * completion when it completes exceptionally; otherwise, if this
     * CompletableFuture completes normally, then the returned
     * CompletableFuture also completes normally with the same value.
     * Note: More flexible versions of this functionality are
     * available using methods {@code whenComplete} and {@code handle}.
     *
     * @param fn the function to use to compute the value of the
     * returned CompletableFuture if this CompletableFuture completed
     * exceptionally
     * @return the new CompletableFuture
     */
    public CompletableFuture<T> exceptionally(
        Function<Throwable, ? extends T> fn) {
        return uniExceptionallyStage(fn);
    }

    /* ------------- Arbitrary-arity constructions -------------- */

    /**
     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed when all of
     * the given CompletableFutures complete.  If any of the given
     * CompletableFutures complete exceptionally, then the returned
     * CompletableFuture also does so, with a CompletionException
     * holding this exception as its cause.  Otherwise, the results,
     * if any, of the given CompletableFutures are not reflected in
     * the returned CompletableFuture, but may be obtained by
     * inspecting them individually. If no CompletableFutures are
     * provided, returns a CompletableFuture completed with the value
     * {@code null}.
     *
     * Among the applications of this method is to await completion
     * of a set of independent CompletableFutures before continuing a
     * program, as in: {@code CompletableFuture.allOf(c1, c2,
     * c3).join();}.
     *
     * @param cfs the CompletableFutures
     * @return a new CompletableFuture that is completed when all of the
     * given CompletableFutures complete
     * @throws NullPointerException if the array or any of its elements are
     * {@code null}
     */
    public static CompletableFuture<Void> allOf(CompletableFuture<?>... cfs) {
        return andTree(cfs, 0, cfs.length - 1);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a new CompletableFuture that is completed when any of
     * the given CompletableFutures complete, with the same result.
     * Otherwise, if it completed exceptionally, the returned
     * CompletableFuture also does so, with a CompletionException
     * holding this exception as its cause.  If no CompletableFutures
     * are provided, returns an incomplete CompletableFuture.
     *
     * @param cfs the CompletableFutures
     * @return a new CompletableFuture that is completed with the
     * result or exception of any of the given CompletableFutures when
     * one completes
     * @throws NullPointerException if the array or any of its elements are
     * {@code null}
     */
    public static CompletableFuture<Object> anyOf(CompletableFuture<?>... cfs) {
        return orTree(cfs, 0, cfs.length - 1);
    }

    /* ------------- Control and status methods -------------- */

    /**
     * If not already completed, completes this CompletableFuture with
     * a {@link CancellationException}. Dependent CompletableFutures
     * that have not already completed will also complete
     * exceptionally, with a {@link CompletionException} caused by
     * this {@code CancellationException}.
     *
     * @param mayInterruptIfRunning this value has no effect in this
     * implementation because interrupts are not used to control
     * processing.
     *
     * @return {@code true} if this task is now cancelled
     */
    public boolean cancel(boolean mayInterruptIfRunning) {
        boolean cancelled = (result == null) &&
            internalComplete(new AltResult(new CancellationException()));
        postComplete();
        return cancelled || isCancelled();
    }

    /**
     * Returns {@code true} if this CompletableFuture was cancelled
     * before it completed normally.
     *
     * @return {@code true} if this CompletableFuture was cancelled
     * before it completed normally
     */
    public boolean isCancelled() {
        Object r;
        return ((r = result) instanceof AltResult) &&
            (((AltResult)r).ex instanceof CancellationException);
    }

    /**
     * Returns {@code true} if this CompletableFuture completed
     * exceptionally, in any way. Possible causes include
     * cancellation, explicit invocation of {@code
     * completeExceptionally}, and abrupt termination of a
     * CompletionStage action.
     *
     * @return {@code true} if this CompletableFuture completed
     * exceptionally
     */
    public boolean isCompletedExceptionally() {
        Object r;
        return ((r = result) instanceof AltResult) && r != NIL;
    }

    /**
     * Forcibly sets or resets the value subsequently returned by
     * method {@link #get()} and related methods, whether or not
     * already completed. This method is designed for use only in
     * error recovery actions, and even in such situations may result
     * in ongoing dependent completions using established versus
     * overwritten outcomes.
     *
     * @param value the completion value
     */
    public void obtrudeValue(T value) {
        result = (value == null) ? NIL : value;
        postComplete();
    }

    /**
     * Forcibly causes subsequent invocations of method {@link #get()}
     * and related methods to throw the given exception, whether or
     * not already completed. This method is designed for use only in
     * error recovery actions, and even in such situations may result
     * in ongoing dependent completions using established versus
     * overwritten outcomes.
     *
     * @param ex the exception
     * @throws NullPointerException if the exception is null
     */
    public void obtrudeException(Throwable ex) {
        if (ex == null) throw new NullPointerException();
        result = new AltResult(ex);
        postComplete();
    }

    /**
     * Returns the estimated number of CompletableFutures whose
     * completions are awaiting completion of this CompletableFuture.
     * This method is designed for use in monitoring system state, not
     * for synchronization control.
     *
     * @return the number of dependent CompletableFutures
     */
    public int getNumberOfDependents() {
        int count = 0;
        for (Completion p = stack; p != null; p = p.next)
            ++count;
        return count;
    }

    /**
     * Returns a string identifying this CompletableFuture, as well as
     * its completion state.  The state, in brackets, contains the
     * String {@code "Completed Normally"} or the String {@code
     * "Completed Exceptionally"}, or the String {@code "Not
     * completed"} followed by the number of CompletableFutures
     * dependent upon its completion, if any.
     *
     * @return a string identifying this CompletableFuture, as well as its state
     */
    public String toString() {
        Object r = result;
        int count;
        return super.toString() +
            ((r == null) ?
             (((count = getNumberOfDependents()) == 0) ?
              "[Not completed]" :
              "[Not completed, " + count + " dependents]") :
             (((r instanceof AltResult) && ((AltResult)r).ex != null) ?
              "[Completed exceptionally]" :
              "[Completed normally]"));
    }

    // Unsafe mechanics
    private static final sun.misc.Unsafe UNSAFE;
    private static final long RESULT;
    private static final long STACK;
    private static final long NEXT;
    static {
        try {
            final sun.misc.Unsafe u;
            UNSAFE = u = sun.misc.Unsafe.getUnsafe();
            Class<?> k = CompletableFuture.class;
            RESULT = u.objectFieldOffset(k.getDeclaredField("result"));
            STACK = u.objectFieldOffset(k.getDeclaredField("stack"));
            NEXT = u.objectFieldOffset
                (Completion.class.getDeclaredField("next"));
        } catch (Exception x) {
            throw new Error(x);
        }
    }
}

Last Updated 6/14/2024, 3:05:31 AM